How syrup is prepared?

How syrup is prepared

Syrups are sweet viscous concentrated aqueous solutions of sucrose in purified water.  Simple syrup I.P contains 66.7%w/w sucrose in purified water (100 ml)  Simple syrup USP contains 85%w/v sucrose in purified water (100 m.) 

Medicated Syrup: Contains a therapeutic or medicinal agent e.g. Cough syrup. 

Flavored Syrup: Contains flavoring agent but no medicinal substances e.g. Cherry syrup. 

Advantages of Syrup

1. Syrup retards oxidation because it is partly hydrolyzed into its reducing sugar such as laevulose and dextrose. 

2. It prevents the decomposition of vegetable substances. The syrup has a high concentration of sugar having high osmotic pressure which prevents the growth of bacteria, fungi, and microbes. It acts as a self-preservative. 

3. They are palatable due to the sweetness of sugar. It is a valuable vehicle for the administration of nauseous and bitter substances. 

4. Syrups are good demulcents and soothing agents and hence they are of specialvalue in cough syrup. 

5. Syrups have good patient compliance.

The concentration of sucrose in sugar-based syrup is very important. A dilute solution may lead to the growth of micro-organisms whereas a saturated solution may lead to the crystallization of the same part of sucrose. Both syrup concentrations as per IP and USP give stable syrup. Syrup containing various concentrations of sucrose needs an antimicrobial preservative.

Method of Preparation 

The choice of a particular method depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the substance being used. 

1. Hot Process 

This method is used when active constituents are neither volatile nor heat labile. 

Weighed sucrose is taken in a beaker. 

Purified water is added. 

Heated on a water bath (less than 70°C) till a solution is obtained. 

Product is filtered. 

Volume is made upto q.s. 

Excessive heat may lead to the inversion of sucrose. 

2. Percolation 

Sucrose is placed in percolator. 

Water is passed through sucrose slowly. 

The neck of a percolator is packed with cotton. 

Rate of percolation regulates the rate of dissolution. 

After complete dissolution final volume is made up to q.s. 

3. Agitation Without Heat 

Procedure for heat labile constituents 

Sucrose and other ingredients are weighed properly. 

Dissolved in purified water. 

Kept in a bottle of about twice the volume of syrup followed by continuous agitation. 

Prepared syrup volume is made up to q.s.

4. Addition of Medicating or Flavouring Liquid to Syrup 

This method is used when fluid extracts, tinctures, or other liquids are to be added to syrup.

Alcohol is added to dissolve the resinous or oily substances. 

Alcohol acts as a preservative also. 

Formulation of Syrup 

1. Vehicle: Syrups are prepared by using purified water. 

2. Adjuncts: The following adjuncts are generally added to improve the formulation of syrup. 

• Chemical Stabilizer: Glycerin, sorbitol, and propylene glycol is added in small quantity to syrup to prevent crystallization. 

• Colouring agent: Many syrups are attractively colored with coal tar dyes such as amaranth, compound tartarazine, and Green S. 

• Flavouring agents: 

(i) Tinctures: Lemon and ginger tincture 

(ii) Fruit juice: Cherry, Raspberry 

(iii) Essence: Vanilla, orange 

Preservatives: Syrups are self-preservatives, Generally, Benzoic acid, Sodium benzoate, Methylparaben, etc. 

Storage: Stored in well dried, completely filled, and well-stopped bottle in a cool dark place. Store at a temperature not exceeding 25°C.

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